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back to Endex Features page How Endex PLUS works

How Endex Works

Endex operates on the principle that impedance measurements between electrodes differ depending on frequencies used, and differ greatly at apical constriction regions.

Using an initial reading about 2 and 3 mm from the root canal orifice of each canal as a reference, Endex evaluates by monitoring the changes in impedances at 5 KHz and 1 KHz, as the file probe approaches the apex. The critical apical region is indicated on the panel meter and by audio alarm.

Basic Procedure

Endex Set Up
Turn on Endex and check the pilot lamp for battery condition. Attach a hand K-file or reamer (#8 or #15) with a marker on the File Clip and place the Lip Clip on the patient's lip.

Preparation of Canal
Although Endex produces accurate readings in any moist canal, the ideal condition for precise Endex readings is to cover the cervix with a good conducting fluid such as saline and sodium hypochlorite. Existing conditions with pus, blood, etc. in the canal may be easily improved with the addition of such fluid. Excess irrigant in the canal should be reduced to isolate the electrode (inside the root canal) from outside.

Base SettingEndex Basic Procedure
Insert the file probe about 2 to 3 mm below the cervix (root canal orifice), placing it against the canal wall. Push the Reset Button on the Endex to set the reference reading. The needle on the gauge will swing once and settle at the Reset arrow.

Readings at the Apical Region
Slowly advance the probe file toward the apex, as the meter needle moves toward the Green Zone. The audio alarm beeps intermittently in the Green Zone, beginning approximately 0.7 mm from an apical restriction. The position of the probe file at the apical region is magnified in the Green Zone and indicated with the needle on the gauge. At the Apex (Yellow Zone) sustained beep sounds.

Determine the Working Length
Set the marker on the K-file. Remove the file, and measure the length from the marker to determine the working length.

Key Points on Endex
  • Endex remedies the difficult tactile sensing of narrow root canals.
  • K-files or reamers (normally #8 and #15) with plastic handles are used. Canal readings are not affected with the probe file sizes, however a larger file should be used when the canal size is over #45 file.
  • Extremely low current 2 µA produces no patient discomfort.
  • The lip clips and the new probe end cords are steam autoclavable.
  • Endex is operated with rechargeable batteries. A special charger is included.
  • Audio volume is adjustable.


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